The Cold War was a long series of smaller conflicts between the United States and the Soviet Union, beginning in the 1940's and going all the way into the 1990's. The United States and the Soviet Union never actually had direct conflict with each other, though. There was a policy shared by both nations known as M.A.D., which stands for Mutually Assured Destruction. This was an idea that referred to the massive amount of nuclear weapons that both nations possessed at the time. Both the US and the Soviet Union knew that if one country launched a nuclear attack, the other would retaliate, and the resulting damage would basically destroy the world, because it would have eliminated the two most powerful countries on the planet.
So instead of directly engaging each other, they used their allied countries as pieces on the board, and had the smaller nations fight for them. So the Cold War led to many smaller conflicts such as the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Vietnam War, and the Berlin Crisis of 1961.

On November 10, 1958, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev delivered a speech in which he demanded that the Western powers of the United States, Great Britain and France pull their forces out of West Berlin within six months. This ultimatum sparked a three year crisis over the future of the city of Berlin that culminated in 1961 with the building of the Berlin Wall.

For a great deal of European history and information visit European NAvigator.

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"The Cold War is the name given to the relationship that developed primarily between the USA and the USSR after World War Two. The Cold War was to dominate international affairs for decades and many major crises occurred - the Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam, Hungary and the Berlin Wall being just some. For many the growth in weapons of mass destruction was the most worrying issue.
Do note that USSR in 1945 was Russia post-1917 and included all the various countries that now exist individually (Ukraine, Georgia etc) but after the war they were part of this huge country up until the collapse of the Soviet Union (the other name for the USSR).
Logic would dictate that as the USA and the USSR fought as allies during World War Two, their relationship after the war would be firm and friendly. This never happened and any appearance that these two powers were friendly during the war is illusory."
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/what%20was%20the%20cold%20war.htm

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There was many reasons why the Cold War occurred. It occurred because the Americans were fear that the
communist were going to attack them. Another reason why it happen was because the Russians were scared
of the Americans atomic bomb and they thought the Americans were going to throw them the bomb. Also
it happened because the Russians didn't like the way the Americans used capitalism.
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/causes%20of%20the%20cold%20war.htm


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The Cold War started because of fear. America feared that the Soviet Unions economic policies would affect its corporation. another reason was because of the soviet unions size. converting country in days, America feared this large conquering nation. In order to protect itself, America made many nuclear weapons and warheads in case the soviets attacked. In return the soviets returned the favor they started developing nuclear warheads. in the end both nations had enough bombs to destroy the world inside out. noone used any of the weapons therefore calling it the "Cold" War for its lack of action.